Literature Review: The Role of Environmental Factors in Human Development

Writing literature review requires extensive research about a subject. In your literature review, you are expected to place your original work in the context of existing literature and provide interpretation of the major issues associated with the topic. The following is a sample literature review worksheet developed by our writers. Read it to get a better understanding of how to approach such essays.

Literature Worksheet

Article One

Citation of literature

Parfitt, Y., Pike, A., & Ayers, S. (2014). Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective. Infant & Child Development, 23(4), 353.

Authors’ Claims

In the introduction, the authors claimed that there is a positive relationship between parental mental health, the infant’s characteristics, the couple’s relationship, parental perceptions of the parent-infant relationship, parent-infant interaction, and infant’s cognitive, language and motor development. They used 42 couples, of age between 26 and 46 years and have been in relationship between 1 year and 25 years. In the discussion section, the authors explain the results, which showed that parent’s perceptions of their infant’s characteristics were an important predictor of children’s cognitive, language and motor development. Also, the results show a positive association between the mother’s perception of the mother-infant relationship and the child’s language development and the father’s perception of the father-infant relationship with the child’s motor development. However, the authors were surprised to find no association between observed parent-infant interactions and the infant’s development. For instance, there is no association between prenatal and postnatal mental health (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) and children’s development.

Influence of Factors on Human Development.

The authors were interested in the physical and psychological effects of parental mental health, the infant’s characteristics, the couple’s relationship, parental perceptions of the parent-infant relationship, and parent-infant interaction on the infant’s cognitive, language and motor development. They found a positive relationship between perception of the mother-infant relationship and the child’s language development while perception of the father-infant relationship and the child’s motor development. However, they there was no association between prenatal and mental health and the child’s development.

Historical Significance

Developmental psychologists have historically studied the effects of parental mental health, the infant’s characteristics, the couple’s relationship, parental perceptions of the parent-infant relationship, and parent-infant interaction on the infant’s cognitive, language and motor development. This study showed that parent’s perceptions of their infant’s characteristics were an important predictor of children’s cognitive, language and motor development. Unlike previous research, the study did not find association between maternal postnatal PTSD and the infant’s cognitive development.

Research Methods and Design.

The study used participants from 42 families recruited from a longitudinal study known as the Sussex Journey to Parenthood Study (UK). The study was conducted through observations and clinical interviews. The design was appropriate because it included both observation and interviews. The researchers not only observed the development of the child, but also interviewed the parents to counter-check the observation.

Ethics

The researchers obtained written informed consent which assured the participants about confidentiality, anonymity and the right to withdraw at any time.  Forty-five families agreed to participate in the study. However, during the study, three families moved away, which led to the final sample of 42 families. Also, a researcher who was qualified and trained in the use of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III carried out the assessment. Therefore, the study fits with the view of ethics over the history of human development and was approved by NHS Research Ethics Committee and the University Research Governance Committee.

Article Two

Citation of literature

Linebarger, D. L. (2015). Contextualizing video game play: The moderating effects of cumulative risk and parenting styles on the relations among video game exposure and problem behaviors. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4(4), 375–396. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1037/ppm0000069

Authors’ Claims

Parenting style play a significant role in children’s video game exposure. Responsive parenting helps in moderating video game exposure, which addresses hyperactivity and inattention in preschool and school-age children.

Influence of Factors on Human Development.

The author examined the physical and physiological effects of parenting styles in relation to children’s exposure to violent video games. School-age children’s hyperactivity levels leads increases the chances of exposure to video games. Therefore, there is the need for parental guidance on violent and nonviolent content.

Historical Significance

Development Psychologists established a positive relationship between exposure to violent video games and the development of violent behavior. Linebarger (2015) agrees with the previous research on the effect of violent video games on children. However, the author emphasizes the role of parents to the exposure of children to violent video games.

Research Methods and Design.

The author used survey research method to examine 788 pre-schoolers (2- years) and 391 school-age children (6-8 years). The research involved interviewing parents on the children’s exposure to video games.

Ethics

The researcher obtained an informed consent from the parents to participate in the study. Also, the researcher got approval from the U.S Department of Education to conduct the study.

Article Three

Citation of literature

Stephen E. Gilman, S. D.. author, Ichiro Kawachi, M. D. . P. D. author, Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, S. D.  author, & Stephen L. Buka, S. D. . author. (2003). Family Disruption in Childhood and Risk of Adult Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Psychiatric Association, (5), 939. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.939

Authors’ Claims

Family disruption and socioeconomic status has a significant effect on the development of major depression in adulthood. Children are at high risk of developing depression in adulthood due to parents’ conflict.

Influence of Factors on Human Development.

Family disruption such separation and divorce affect children’s cognitive development. Also, low socioeconomic status contributes to the development of depression because children grow up without quality health care.

Historical Significance

Parents’ socioeconomic status has been linked with children’s development, both physically and cognitively. For example, there is a positive relationship between parents’ socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Also, the authors found that family disruption causes depression in adulthood.

Research Methods and Design.

The authors used survey research method with 1,104 offspring of mothers enrolled during pregnancy as participants. Interviews were used to assess the participants’ onset of major depression between the ages of 18 and 39 years.

Ethics

The researcher obtained an informed consent from the participants. Also, the researcher got approval from the American Psychiatric Association.

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