Discussion 1: Does it matter if a person makes reasoned arguments?

Does it matter if a person makes reasoned arguments? Does it have anything to do with the evolution of human knowledge?

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Apparently, it matters if a person makes reasoned arguments that is what it takes to make a valid argument. Without reasoning, a person can make an invalid argument, thus an invalid conclusion. Also, making a valid argument is consistent with the evolution of human knowledge. According to the text, “Use Reliable Argument Forms”, there are differences as well as similarities between the grammar of sentences and the grammar of arguments (44).  The most important difference is the order of presentation of the words. However, there is no difference in logic in regard to the order in which reasons are presented.  A reasoned argument can either be deductive or inductive. Deductive reasoning uses a set of premises to reach a conclusion. This means that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is also true. For instance, consider the argument: “If Jennifer has gone to the library, she’s studying with Karen. Since she’s at the library, Karen must be with her.” (49).

In the above example, if the antecedent, “If Jennifer has gone to the library”  is true, then the consequence, “She’s studying with Karen” is true, then the conclusion, “Karen must be at the library” is also true.

The deductive argument provides a way of making reasoned arguments to make a valid point. However, making unreasoned argument can lead to an invalid conclusion which cannot be trusted. Consider the following argument, “If Leah wants a high GPA, she’ll have to work fewer hours. She’s going to cut back twenty hours next week. So she’ll definitely get a higher GPA” Although this is a deductive argument, it leads to a false conclusion, because cutting back on hours cannot guaranteed a higher GPA. Getting a higher GPA is associated with other factors such as studying, doing well in assignments and exams.  Another reasoned argument is inductive argument, which is a way of reasoning from the specific to general.

Apparently, reasoned arguments is associated with the evolution of human knowledge. According to the evolution theory, about 2 million years ago people used to communicate with signs. As the human knowledge progressed and human beings possessed the mental capacity to communicate effectively, they also developed reasoning. The main types of reasoning include deductive and inductive reasoning, which help individuals to make valid conclusions. However, it is important to note that following a deductive or inductive structure does not guarantee a valid conclusion, but the premises must be true for the conclusion to be trusted.

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